A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information based on electrical and chemical signals. Chemical signaling takes place by means of a synapse - a special connection between other cells. Neurons form neural networks through connections with each other. The computer communicates using bits, neurons using excitement. The incoming signal changes the "membrane potential" of the neuron, and when it reaches a certain value, the neuron sends a signal in the form of a spike.
Author note: Soon to be completed